TOUATI Nadjah, TATKEU Charles, CHONAVEL Thierry, RIVENK Atika

**Design and performances evaluation of new costas-based radar waveforms with pulse coding diversity**. IET radar, sonar and navigation, june 2016, vol. 10, n° 5, pp. 877-891*Costas codes are a variant of pulse compression waveforms, largely studied for their attractive time-frequency properties. Their ‘thumbtack-like' ambiguity function (AF) makes them highly suitable for delay and Doppler estimation, in radar and sonar applications. However, this behaviour depends heavily on the length of the code: the improvement in delay-Doppler resolutions and AF sidelobes level needs an increase in the size of the code. In this study, designs that allow good performance without increasing the size of the code are proposed. They are based on a modification of Costas codes by widening frequency separation between hops and replacing rectangular pulses by other waveforms. This will lead to a removal of autocorrelation function grating lobes that normally appear when frequency separation is increased. The originality of the work lies in the proposal of diversified pulse waveforms, such as phase codes, Slepian sequences, and other Costas codes, to encode main Costas pulses. A performance comparison of the proposed approaches is supplied. Such waveforms could also be of interest for applications where waveform diversity is desired. *

LE GALL Yann, DOSSO Stan, SOCHELEAU François-Xavier, BONNEL Julien

**Bayesian source localization with uncertain Green's function in an uncertain shallow water ocean**. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, march 2016, vol. 139, n° 3, pp. 993*Matched-field acoustic source localization is a challenging task when environmental properties of the oceanic waveguide are not precisely known. Errors in the assumed environment (mismatch) can cause severe degradations in localization performance. This paper develops a Bayesian approach to improve robustness to environmental mismatch by considering the waveguide Green's function to be an uncertain random vector whose probability density accounts for environmental uncertainty. The posterior probability density is integrated over the Green's function probability density to obtain a joint marginal probability distribution for source range and depth, accounting for environmental uncertainty and quantifying localization uncertainty. Because brute-force integration in high dimensions can be costly, an efficient method is developed in which the multi-dimensional Green's function integration is approximated by one-dimensional integration over a suitably defined correlation measure. An approach to approximate the Green's function covariance matrix, which represents the environmental mismatch, is developed based on modal analysis. Examples are presented to illustrate the method and Monte-Carlo simulations are carried out to evaluate its performance relative to other methods. The proposed method gives efficient, reliable source localization and uncertainties with improved robustness toward environmental mismatch. *

SAUCAN Augustin Alexandru, CHONAVEL Thierry, SINTES Christophe, LE CAILLEC Jean-Marc

**CPHD-DOA Tracking of Multiple Extended Sonar Targets in Impulsive Environments**. IEEE transactions on signal processing, march 2016, vol. 64, n° 5, pp. 1147-1160*In this paper, we propose a novel phased-array track before detect (TBD) filter for tracking multiple distributed (extended) targets from impulsive observations. Since the targets are angularly spread, we track the centroid Direction Of Arrival (DOA) of the target-generated (or backscattered) signal. The main challenge stems from the random target signals that, conditional to their respective states, constitute non-deterministic contributions to the system observation. The novelty of our approach is twofold. First, we develop a Cardinalized Probability Hypothesis Density (CPHD) filter for tracking multiple targets with non-deterministic contributions, more specifically, Spherically Invariant RandomVector (SIRV) processes. This is achieved by analytically integrating the SIRV and angularly distributed target signals in the update step. Thus, ensuring a more efficient implementation than existing solutions, that generally consider augmenting the target state with the target signal. Secondly, we provide an improved auxiliary particle CPHD filter and clustering methodology. The auxiliary step is carried out for persistent particles, while for newly birthed particles an adaptive importance distribution is given. This is in contrast with existing solutions that only consider the auxiliary step for birthed particles. Simulated data results showcase the improved performance of the proposed filter. Results on real sonar phased-array data are presented for underwater 3D image reconstruction applications. *